For the big bang model to work, the ratio of the universe’s mass density and its critical density must have been within one in 1014 one second after the big bang. 1 A value slightly too small would absolutely prevent galaxies from forming, while a value slightly too large would have resulted in the universe collapsing. This fine-tuning makes the big bang awkward and implausible.
This parameter is so finely tuned that one scientist compared it to being like a pencil balanced on its point–it’s that sensitive.
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Calle, C. I. (2009). The Universe: Order Without Design. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books.
- Calle, 2009, p. 82-83“However, Dicke explained that Ω was very sensitive, comparing it to a pencil balanced on its point. … According to Dicke, for the universe that we observe to exist today, the value of Ω must have been no smaller than 0.99999999999999 or the density would have decreased to such a small value that no galaxies could have formed. On the other hand, the value of Ω could not have been larger than 1.00000000000001 or the universe would have collapsed before any galaxies could form.” ↩