Much DNA is poly-constrained, 1 making any mutation at all negative. Evolution of this DNA is therefore impossible.
For instance, imagine trying to change the four-letter word “live” to “word” by changing one letter at a time:
live > love > wove > wore > word
However, “live” has meaning when read backwards: “evil”. 2 Now, try to change “live” to “word” on letter at a time, but each change must continue to have meaning both forward and backward. This makes the job considerably more difficult (impossible in this case). For instance,
live (evil) > love (evol?) …
If the word has meaning forward and backward and needs to stay that way, changing it will usually break it. Furthermore, genes are much more complex than these small words, and so all changes will definitely break the genetic code if it is poly-constrained. This is why gradual evolution of poly-constrained DNA is impossible.
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Sanford, J. C., & Baumgardner, J. (2008). Genetic Entropy & the Mystery of the Genome (3rd ed.). Waterloo, NY: FMS Publications.