Gametic sampling is a form of noise especially in smaller populations, though it is still present in larger ones. 1 In essence, this effect refers to the fact that in small sample sizes, statistics are not always accurately reflected. The smaller the population, the more prominent this type of noise is. It would be like trying to judge which baseball player has a better OBP by looking at only two at-bats per player.
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Sanford, J. C., & Baumgardner, J. (2008). Genetic Entropy & the Mystery of the Genome (3rd ed.). Waterloo, NY: FMS Publications.
ReMine, W. J. (1993). The Biotic Message: Evolution Versus Message Theory. Saint Paul, Minn.: St. Paul Science.
Cotner, S., & Moore, R. (2011). Arguing for Evolution: An Encyclopedia for Understanding Science. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Greenwood.
Coyne, J. A. (2009). Why Evolution Is True. New York: Viking.
- Sanford, 2008, p. 96,97 ↩
- ReMine, 1993, p. 181:”… the smaller the population, the more genetic drift dominates over differential survival.” ↩
- Cotner and Moore, 2011, p. 3: “Random changes in genetic frequencies can occur in a population, a type of evolution known as genetic drift. Genetic drift often typifies small populations (e.g., as with endangered species), in which by chance some individuals do not reproduce. By definition this type of evolution is not a result of environmental pressures.” ↩
- Coyne, 2009, p. 123: “Such random change in the frequency of genes over time is called genetic drift. It is a legitimate type of evolution, since it involves changes in the frequencies of alleles over time, but it doesn’t arise from natural selection. … These are small, isolated religious groups whose members intermarry–just the right circumstances for rapid evolution by genetic drift.” ↩
- Coyne, 2009, p. 124: “In fact, genetic drift is not only powerless to create adaptions, but can actually overpower natural selection. Especially in small populations, the sampling effect can be so large that it raises the frequency of harmful genes even though selection is working in the opposite direction. This is almost certainly why we see a high incidence of genetically based diseases in isolated human communities, including Gaucher’s disease in northern Swedes, Tay-Sachs in the Cajuns of Louisiana, and retinitis pigmentosa in the inhabitants of the island of Tristan da Cunha.” ↩